http://WWW.CANCERINFO.IN
http://WWW.CANCERINFO.IN

Checking delivery availability...

background-sm
Search
3

Updates found with 'major limitation'

Page  1 1

Updates found with 'major limitation'

IMMUNOTHERAPY IN LUNG CANCER- THE FUTURE OF CANCER CARE.Any cancer and lung cancer in particular creates a highly immunosuppressive environment locally i.e. our bodies immune cells are unable to recognize cancer cells.This is made possible by expression of certain proteins on surface of cancer cells which in turn binds to checkpoints like CTLA-4 and PD-1 present on surface of T-cells . This binding triggers a negative signal and stops T-cells from killing cancer cells. Immunotherapy drugs blocks the CTLA-4 and PD-1 which are checkpoints on T-cells , alternatively other drugs bind to the ligands present on surface of tumor cells. This leads to reactivation of the bodies ability to kill these cancer cells.Pembrolizumab is a immunotherapy drug that is a PD-1 inhibitor and it is approved in both 1st and 2nd line metastatic non small cell lung cancer.There is a IHC test that has to be done with a approved antibody for detecting the expression of PD-L1 ligand in tumor tissue.In the 1st line pembrolizumab is used in patients when PD-L1 expression is more then 50%.In the 2nd line the drug is used when expression >1%.The drug recently got its approval in 1st line in combination with chemotherapy based on the results of one of KEYNOTE trial. Nivolumab is approved in 2nd line irrespective of the PD-L1 expression for metastatic NSCLC.Immunotherapy drugs leads to long term stabilization of metastatic disease in approximately 20% of patients. Cost is a major limitation which restricts its use in developing country
Send Enquiry
Read More
SCREENING MAMMOGRAPHY - A UNDERUTILISED TOOL AGAINST BREAST CANCER IN INDIAIndian context of breast cancer:Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in india, close 1.5 lakh new cases are diagnosed each year.It Constitutes around 10% of all new cancer cases diagnosed in a year.In india approximately 40% of breast cancer patients are younger then 50 years while this could be real but may also be due to underreporting of breast cancer in elderly indian women.Almost half of the indian breast cancer patients present in stages III and IV.Advancing age is the most important risk factor for breast cancer.One of the major reasons for late diagnosis is lack of awareness regarding screening programmes in breast cancer.2016 update US preventive service task force makes for following recommendation:-Recommends screening mammography every 2 years in asymptomatic average risk*women between age 50-74 years.*A women is said to be at average risk of breast cancer provided they do not have any preexisting breast cancer or a high-risk breast lesion and wthout any high risk genetic mutation (such as a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation or other familial breast cancer syndrome) or a history of chest radiation at a young age.-For average risk women between age group of 40-49 years, the decision to start screening or not should be an individualised knowing that the absolute benefit in survival is small.- Maximum benefit of screening mammography in terms of prolonging life is seen in age group of 60-69 years. Questions regarding breast cancer screening in indian women?- Cost effectiveness was not taken into consideration by US preventive task force, which may be an important consideration in developing country like india.- As we know indian women are being diagnosed at younger age and probably should benefit more if routine screening age is 40 years.
Send Enquiry
Read More
Page 1 0.5